Rebecca Hall
Beau Knapp

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New Approaches to Hedging
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 310

New Approaches to Hedging

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2010
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  • Publisher: BRILL

Hedging is an essential part of everyday communication. It is a discourse strategy which is used to reduce commitment to the force or truth of an utterance to achieve an appropriate pragmatic effect. Although hedging devices such as Engl. sort of, approximately, I think were for some time considered to contribute little to the communication, they are now generally acknowledged as playing a crucial role in both spoken and written discourse. In recent years hedges have therefore attracted increased attention in Pragmatics and Applied Linguistics, with studies approaching the concept of hedging from various perspectives, such as speech act- and politeness theory, genre-specific investigations, interactional pragmatics, and studies of vague language.

Aspects of Meaning Construction
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 287

Aspects of Meaning Construction

Meaning does not reside in linguistic units but is constructed in the minds of the language users. Meaning construction is an on-line mental activity whereby speech participants create meanings on the basis of underspecified linguistic units. The construction of meaning is guided by cognitive principles. The contributions collected in the volume focus on two types of cognitive principles guiding meaning construction: meaning construction by means of metonymy and metaphor, and meaning construction by means of mental spaces and conceptual blending. The papers in the former group survey experiential evidence of figurative meaning construction and discuss high-level metaphor and metonymy, the role of metonymy in discourse, the chaining of metonymies, metonymy as an alternative to coercion, and metaphtonymic meanings of proper names. The papers in the latter group address the issues of meaning construction prompted by personal pronouns, relative clauses, inferential constructions, “sort-of” expressions, questions, and the into-causative construction.

Language Contact and Language Change in the Caribbean and Beyond
  • Language: es
  • Pages: 263

Language Contact and Language Change in the Caribbean and Beyond

Partiendo del Caribe hispanohablante como zona de intercambio y diversificacion linguistica, este volumen reune enfoques muy diversos desde la perspectiva de tipologos y especialistas en lenguas criollas, africanas y romances. El conjunto de los temas tratados abarca tanto la reorganizacion de categorias nominales y sistemas de partes de la oracion como procesos de gramaticalizacion y pragmaticalizacion o la reorganizacion en el lexico como ventana hacia los contextos socio-historicos. Como la perspectiva tipologica constituye el marco para los microanalisis presentados en este volumen, las posibles zonas de convergencia destacan mas claramente.<BR> Setting out from the Spanish-speaking Ca...

Kognitive Grundlagen lexikalischer Hierarchien
  • Language: de
  • Pages: 266

Kognitive Grundlagen lexikalischer Hierarchien

Begriffshierarchien auf der Basis von Inklusionsbeziehungen sind seit der Antike ein unverzichtbares Element abendländischer Wissensstrukturen und werden als zentrales lexikalisches Organisationsprinzip betrachtet. In den letzten Jahrzehnten wurde nun beobachtet, dass Konzepte der Basisebene bildhaft und autonom sind, nicht aber durch Inklusion über ihre Oberbegriffe konstituiert werden. Diese Arbeit deckt am Beispiel des Französischen, Spanischen und weiterer Sprachen auf der Grundlage von Korpora und lexikographischen Daten die Konsequenzen der Basisebene für die Organisation des Alltagswortschatzes auf. So sind Substantive unterhalb der Basisebene häufig von Basislexemen abgeleitet o...

The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 608

The Lexical Typology of Semantic Shifts

The volume focuses on semantic shifts and motivation patterns in the lexicon. Its key feature is its lexico-typological orientation, i.e. a heavy emphasis on systematic cross-linguistic comparison. The book presents current theoretical and methodological trends in the study of semantic shifts and motivational patters based on an abundance of empirical findings across genetically, areally and typologically diverse languages.

Linguistik
  • Language: de
The Expression of Inequality in Interaction
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 267

The Expression of Inequality in Interaction

In keeping with the profile of Pragmatics & Beyond New Series, this volume presents and discusses issues that are central to aspects of social inequality, power, dominance and status as expressed in discourse in its broadest sense. The volume aggregates research efforts of the past years, and it constitutes a point of departure for future studies. The contributions challenge the widespread assumption that concepts such as inequality, power, dominance and status are predetermined in discourse; the volume, including contributions by international scholars from various disciplines such as linguistics, sociology and social psychology rather emphasizes the co-constructedness of these concepts in ...

Ontolinguistics
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 486

Ontolinguistics

Current progress in linguistic theorizing is more and more informed by cross-linguistic (including cross-modal) investigation. Comparison of languages relies crucially on the concepts that can be coded with similar effort in all languages. These concepts are part of every language user's ontology, the network of cross-connected conceptualizations the mind uses in coping with the world.Assuming that language comparability is rooted in the comparability of user ontologies, the idea of the present volume is to further instigate progress in linguistics by looking behind the interface with the conceptual-intentional system and asking a still underexplored question: How are ontological structures reflected in intra- and cross-linguistic regularities? This question defines the research program of ontology based linguistics or ontolinguistics...

Metonymy and Metaphor in Grammar
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 423

Metonymy and Metaphor in Grammar

with the advent of Cognitive Linguistics, metonymy and metaphor are now recognized as being not only ornamental rhetorical tropes but fundamental figures of thought that shape, to a considerable extent, the conceptual structure of languages. The present volume goes even beyond this insight to propose that grammar itself is metonymical in nature (Langacker) and that conceptual metonymy and metaphor leave their imprints on lexicogrammatical structure.

Grammaticalization and Pragmatics
  • Language: en
  • Pages: 219

Grammaticalization and Pragmatics

  • Type: Book
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  • Published: 2009-01-01
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  • Publisher: BRILL

The studies collected in this volume deal with pragmatic factors involved in the evolution of grammatical or lexical forms or in the emergence of complex syntactic structures in various languages (Dutch, French, Italian, Portuguese, Romanian, Serbian and Spanish). They are set against the theoretical framework of grammaticalization. The main methodological tools are cross-linguistic contrastive analysis and diachronic perspective. The two main issues that emerge from these studies are the place of pragmatic factors in language change (input, output or setting/frame of the process) and the existence or otherwise of a prevailing mechanism for explaining change phenomena.